Tuesday, 9 July 2019

KARANTA TAKAITACCEN TARIHIN YAKIN DUNIYA NA BIYU

Tura Wannan Zuwa
GABATARWA

Yakin Duniya na biyu wanda a turance ake kira da “World War II” wani yaki ne wanda ya shafi duk kasashen duniya kuma aka buga shi a kusan daukacin nahiyoyin duniya a tsakanin shekarun 1939 zuwa 1945.

Wasu jiragen yaki mallakin kasar Ingila suna shawagi a shekarar 1941


A aikace Yakin Duniya na biyu ya kasance yaki wanda wani yaki wanda manyan kawancen kasashen duniya guda biyu suka gwabza. Wadannan kawancen kasashen guda biyu sun hada da rukunin kasashen Ingila (Britain) Amurka ( United States) da kuma Russia wanda ake kiran su da “Allied Powers”. Sai kuma rukunin kawancen kasashen Jamus ( Germany) Italiya (Italy), da Japan wanda ake kira da ” Axis Powers “.
Kimanin shekaru shida da aka yi ana Yakin Duniya na biyu, kuma kusan mafiya yawan yake-yaken da aka gwabza an yi su ne a nahiyar Turai. Sai dai kuma anyi wasu yake-yaken masu tasiri a sauran nahiyoyi.
Masana tarihi da yawa a duniya sun bayyana Yakin Duniya a matsayin yakin da yafi kowanne muni da kuma tasiri a tarihin duniya. Domin kuwa, Yakin ya lashe rayukan mutane farar hula da sojoji kimanin miliyan 70.

Asalin Yakin

Bayan karewar Yakin Duniya na daya, kasashen duniya masu yawa musamman manyan kasashe sun tagayyara sakamakon Yakin na Duniya na biyu. Saboda haka, domin su farfado daga matsalar da suke ciki da kuma dakile faruwar wani yakin a gaba, kasashen duniya musamman manyan kasashe irin su Amurka, Ingila, da Faransa, sun jagoranci zaman yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya a tsakanin kasashen duniya. Sai dai kuma a cikin mafiya yawan wadannan yarjejeniyoyi an hukunta kasar Jamus da kawayen ta irin su Austria, Hungary, da sauran su akan cewa sune suka yi sanadiyyar barkewar Yakin Duniya na daya. A misali, a Yarjejeniyar Zaman lafiya da aka yi a birnin Paris “Paris Peace Conference” a cikin shekarar 1919, kasashen da suka yi nasara a Yakin Duniya na daya kamar irin su Ingila, Faransa, da Amurka sun dora alhakin faruwar Yakin Duniya na akan Jamus. Don haka ne aka tilastawa kasar ta Jamus akan ta biya wasu kudi akan asarar da Yakin Duniya na biyun ya janyo. To amma wannan hukuncin da aka yi wa Jamus ya bakantawa Jamusawa rai, don haka ne suka kuduri aniyar daukar fansa akan abin da suke ganin rashin adalci akan kasar su.
A wani bangaren kuma, bayan Yakin Duniya na biyun, wasu daga cikin kasashen duniya sun taru sun kafa kungiyar kasashen duniya a shekarar 1920 domin kawo zaman lafiya da tsaro a duniya. Wannan Kungiya wadda a turance aka kira da “League of Nations” ta kasance kungiya marar karfi da tasiri musamman saboda kin shiga Kungiyar da kasar Amurka tayi. Kungiyar ta League of Nations ta kasa samar da dandamalin fuskantar juna wanda kasashen duniya za su tattauna da kuma shawon kan matsalolin tsaro a duniya. Haka kuma, da yawa daga cikin kasashen duniya har da mambobin Kungiyar sun kasance suna karya dokokin Kungiyar ta League of Nations. Misali, kasar Japan wadda ta kasance babbar mamba a Kungiyar ta League of Nations kuma mamba ta zauren sulhu na Kungiyar wato “Security Council”, ta kafa abin misali na karya dokokin zaman lafiya da tsaron duniya ga sauran kasashen duniya ta hanyar afkawa tare da mamaye yankin Manchuria a shekarar 1931.
A nahiyar Turai kuma, tsananin matsin tattalin arziki wanda ya biyo bayan Yakin Duniya na daya ya janyo tunbuke gwamnatoci a wasu kasashe tare da hawan mulkin wasu shugabanni masu tsatstsauran ra’ayi (radicals). Daga misalin shekarun 1922 zuwa 1933, an samu shugabanni masu tsatstsauran ra’ayi wanda suka hau gadon mulki a kasashe irin su Italiya, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Poland, da kuma Germany. Mafiya shahara a cikin wadannan shugabanni sune Benito Mussolini wanda ya zama shugaban Italiya a shekarar 1922, da kuma Adolf Hitler wanda ya zama shugaban Jamus a shekarar 1933.
Wadannan shugabanni musamman Adolf Hitler sun yi niyya tare da daukar alkawarin mayar da kasashen su mafiya iko da dauka a fadin duniya ta kowanne hali. A kokarin su na cika wadannan alkawarurruka, Adolf Hitler da Benito Mussolini sun zama abin tsoro ga tsaron duniya ta hanyar karya dokokin zaman lafiya da tsaro. A misali, cikin shekarar 1935, sojojin Italiya sun afkawa kasar Habasha (Ethiopia) domin su mamaye ta. Haka kuma a shekarar 1936, sojojin Jamus sun afka tare da mamaye yankin Rhineland.
Adolf Hitler tare da Benito Mussolini

Saboda haka, domin aka kawo karshen wadannan matsaloli da suke fuskantar duniya, shuhaban Ingila Neville Chamberlain tare da na Faransa sun sadu da Adolf Hitler da Benito Mussolini domin tattaunawa a birnin Munich na kasar Jamus a shekarar 1938. A zaman tattaunawar, an yarda da mafiya yawan abubuwan da Jamus da Italiya suka bijiro da su duk domin a faranta musu rai wanda zai sa su daina mamayar kasashe.
To amma abin takaici, duk da wannan yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya da aka yi a birnin Munich, Germany da Italiya basu yarda da su daina wadannan dabi’u nasu ba. Domin kuwa a watan March na shekarar 1939, sojojin Jamus sun mamaye kasar Czechoslovakia. A kuma watan Afrilu, sojojin Italiya mamaye kasar Albania.

Barkewar Yakin

Halayyar Jamus da Italiya na karya dokokin kasa da kasa da kuma dumamar yanayin siyasa a sauran nahiyoyin duniya sun nuna alamun cewa lallai gagarumin yaki yana kokarin barkewa.
Ana cikin wannan halin ne kuma kwatsam sai wani abu ya faru wanda shine ya janyo barkewar Yakin Duniya na biyu. Wannan abu kuwa shine afkawa tare da mamayewa da sojojin kasar Jamus suka yiwa kasar Poland a ranar 1 ga September, 1939. Don haka ne kwana biyu bayan faruwar afkawar, a ranar 3 ga September, sai kasashen Ingila da Faransa suka ayyana yaki akan kasar Jamus, wanda hakan ya bude farawar Yakin Duniya na biyun.
YAKI A NAHIYAR TURAI
A yayin da Yakin Duniya na biyu ya fara a nahiyar Turai, sojojin Jamus karkashin Adolf Hitler sun nuna alamun nasara. From farkon Yakin cikin shekarar 1939 zuwa watan June na shekarar 1940, sojojin Jamus sun mamaye kasashen Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, da kuma babbar kasa Faransa.
Su kuma sojojin Italiya sun mayar da hankalin su ne wajen mamaye kasashen gabashin Turai da Arewacin Africa.
Zuwa shekarar 1942, sojojin Hitler sun mamaye mafi yawancin kasashen nahiyar Turai, wanda hakan kuma ya fara nuna alamun cewar nasarar sojojin na Jamus ta kai koluluwar nasara. Hakan kuwa ta faru ne sakamakon karya yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya da Hitler yayi tsakanin sa da kasar Russia ta hanyar tura sojojin sa domin su afkawa kasar ta Russia.
Sojojin Jamus sun nausa cikin yankin kasar Russia na tsawon mil 2300, inda suka yi kokarin kwace biranen Moscow ko Leningrad, amma suka kasa. Saboda haka a watan June na shekarar 1942, sojojin Jamus sai suka juya suka nufi birnin Stalingrad wanda yake a kudu maso yammacin Russia domin su kwace shi. A birnin na Stalingrad ne sojojin Jamus suka hadu da na Russia inda aka gwabza yaki mafi girma da tasiri wanda ake kira da “Battle of Stalingrad” har tsawon wata biyar. A yakin, sojojin Russia sun fatattaki sojojin Jamus har ta kai sojojin na kasar Jamus sun ja da baya. Saboda haka wannan nasarar da sojojin Russia suka yi shine ya fara kawo karshen nasarorin sojojin Jamus da kuma bude fara samuwar nasara ga kasashen Allied Powers.
YAKI A NAHIYAR ASIA
A nahiyar Asia Japan wadda tuni ta kulla kawance da kasashen Jamus da na Italiya ta kasance abar tsoro wadda ta kuduri aniyar mamaye gabashin Asia.
Kafin farawar Yakin Duniya na biyu, kasar Japan ta fara afkawa tare da mamayar kasashen gabashin Asia a kokarin ta na kafa babbar daula. Don haka ne ma zuwa farawar Yakin Duniya na a shekarar 1939, tuni Japan mamaye yankuna da dama ciki har da wani bangare na kasar China.
Da farawar Yakin Duniya na biyu, sai Japan ta himmatu wajen afkawa tare da mamayar kasashe a gabashin nahiyar Asia. Zuwa shekarar 1942, kokarin Japan na mamaye gabashin Asia ya nuna alamun tabbata bayan da sojojin ta suka sami nasarar korar sojojin ruwan Ingila gabar tekun gabashin Asia da kuma mamaye yankunan Philippines da Malaya.
To amma abin takaici, Japan ma ta tafka kuskure irin wanda Jamus tayi. Kuskuren kuwa shine sojojin sama na kasar Japan sun kai wa Cibiyar Sojojin ruwan Amurka da ake kira “Pearl Harbor” hari a ranar 7 ga December, 1941.
SHIGAR KASAR AMURKA CIKIN YAKIN
A farko-farkon Yakin Duniya na biyu, kasar Amurka bata yi niyyar shiga Yakin ba. To amma, sakamakon karya dokokin tsaron duniya da kuma mamaya da kasashen Jamus, Italiya, da kuma Japan suke yi, sai kasar ta Amurka ta ga cewar in aka tafi a haka to ita ma bata tsira ba. Misali, sojojin ruwan Jamus suna neman su zamewa kasar Amurka matsala a Tekun Atalantika, yayin da sojojin ruwan Japan suka zama hadari ga Amurkan a Tekun Pacific.
Duk da haka, kasar Amurka bata shiga Yakin Duniya na biyun ba a tashin farko. Maimakon haka, sai ta dinga taimakawa kasashen Allied Powers da kayan yaki. Daga bisani kuma ta yanke huldar alaka da kasashen Jamus, Italiya, da Japan ta kuma bukaci sauran kasashen duniya da suyi haka har sai wadannan kasashe sun yarda da zaman lafiya a duniya.
To amma, daga bisani ya zamewa kasar Amurka dole wajen shiga Yakin Duniya na biyun sakamakon harin da Japan ta kai wa mazaunin sojojin ruwan ta na Pearl Harbor wanda ya janyo mutuwar mutane 2000 da kuma jikkata mutane 1000.
Don haka ne a ranar 8 ga December, 1941, Kasar Amurka ta ayyana yaki akan Japan dama sauran kawayen ta na Axis Alliance wato Jamus da Italiya. Shigar da kasar ta Amurka tayi na Yakin Duniya na biyun kuma shine ya canza salon Yakin zuwa yaki tsakanin kasashen Allied wanda ya kunshi kasashen Amurka, Ingila, Russia, da China a bangare daya, da kuma kasashen Axis irin su Jamus, Italiya, da Japan a bangare daya.

Karewar Yakin Duniya na biyu

Kuskuren Jamus na afkawa Russia da yaki a shekarar 1941, da kuma harin da Japan ta kaiwa Amurka a Tekun Pacific ya janyo wa kasashen fushi daga kasashen Allied irin su Amurka, Ingila, Russia wadanda suka hadu domin su yake su.
A ranar 1 ga January, 1942, wakilan kasashe 26 suka hadu suka sa hannu akan dokar ayyana Majalisar Dinkin Duniya “Declaration by United Nations” da kuma ayyana aniyar haduwa guri daya domin yakar kasashen Jamus, Italiya, da Japan.
A watan January 1943, sojojin Russia suka fatattaki sojojin Jamus har ta kai sojojin na Jamus sun ajiye makaman su wato surrender a turance. Wannan rashin nasarar da sojojin Jamus suka yi ya janyo musu karyewar gwiwa.
A yankin arewacin Africa kuwa, sojojin Ingila sun fatattaki hadin gwiwar sojojin Jamus da na Italiya a 1943. Daga nan kuma sojojin na Ingila suka afka cikin kasar Italiya inda suka kwace ikon kasar.
A yankin Tekun Pacific, sojojin sama da na ruwan kasar Amurka sun sami gagarumar nasara. Zuwa shekarar 1942/1943 a karon farko a Yakin Duniya na biyu, sojojin Japan sun hadu da rashin nasarori a yankin Pacific. Sojojin ruwan Amurka sun ci gagarumar nasara akan sojojin Japan har ta kai sun ja da baya daga yankunan tsibiran Marshall, Solomons, Gilbert, Guadalcanal, da kuma Marianas.
A yankin nahiyar Turai, sojojin Russia sun ci gaba da koro sojojin Jamus zuwa yamma, wanda daga karshe cikin watan July 1943 sojojin na Jamus suka gama guduwa.
A watan November 1943, shugabannin kasashen Amurka, Ingila, da Russia sun hadu a birnin Tehran na kasar Iran inda suka tattauna yadda za su kwaci kasar Faransa daga hannun Jamus. Wadannan shugabannin da ake kira da “Big Three” a turance sun hada da Franklin Roosevelt na Amurka, Winston Churchill na Ingila, da kuma Joseph Stalin na Russia.
A ranar 6 ga watan June, 1944, hadin gwiwar sojojin kasashen Allied kimanin miliyan 2 karkashin jagorancin Kwamandan sojin kasar Amurka General Dwight Eisenhower sun afka cikin kasar Faransa domin su kori sojojin Jamus tare da yantar da kasar ta Faransa. An gwabza yaki na tsawon wata biyu tsakanin sojojin a cikin kasar ta Faransa wanda zuwa watan August na 1944, sojojin hadin gwiwar suka sami nasarar fatattaka tare da korar sojojin Jamus daga yankin kasar Faransa.
A ranar 7 ga watan May, 1945, kasar Jamus ta saka hannu tare da ayyana ajiye makaman ta wato surrender a turance.
Zuwa watan 8 May, 1945, Yakin Duniya na biyu yazo karshe a yankin nahiyar Turai. Domin kuwa hadin gwiwar sojojin kasashen Yamma wato Amurka da Ingila sun mamaye tare da kwace ikon yammacin Turai daga hannun Jamus. Yayin da sojojin kasar Russia suka mamaye tare da kwace ikon gabashin Turai.
Bayan kasar Jamus da Italiya sun ajiye makaman su, sai manyan shugabannin kasashen Ingila, Amurka, Russia, tare da China suka hadu a birnin Potsdam a tsakanin 17 ga watan July zuwa 2 watan August 1945, inda suka yi kira ga gwamnatin Japan akan itama ta ajiye makaman ta. Amma bangaren kasar ta Japan tayi biris da wannan kira.
Sakamakon kin yarda da kasar Japan tayi na ajiye makaman ta, a tsakanin ranar 6 zuwa 9 ga watan August 1945, sojojin saman kasar Amurka sun yi amfani da nakiyoyi masu guba wato atomic bombs a turance akan manyan biranen masana’antun kasar Japan na Hiroshima da Nagasaki. Wannan hari kuma ya yi sanadiyyar rasa rayukan mutanen Japan kimanin 40,000.
Sakamakon wadannan munanan hare-hare guda biyu da Amurka ta kai, ya tilastawa kasar Japan ayyana ajiye makaman ta a ranar 2 ga September, 1945. Wannan ajiye makaman da Japan tayi kuma shine ya kawo karshen Yakin Duniya na biyu a fadin duniya baki daya.

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KARANTA TAKAITACCEN TARIHIN YAKIN DUNIYA NA DAYA

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