Sunday 1 October 2017

RAYUWA KENAN TARIHI ABIN TUNAWA: Yadda Mulkin Mallaka A Nijeriya Ya Kasance Kafin Bada 'Yancin Kai

Tura Wannan Zuwa Ga

Alhamdullah. Shekaru da dama da suka gabata,
yankunan da suka hadu suka bada Kasa mai
suna Nijeriya, suna karbar bakuna daga sassa
mabambanta na duniya.
A baya-baya nan, wajajen shekara ta 1807,
lokacin da masarautar Edu ke kan sharafi, turawa
na zuwa yankin domin dillancin bayi izuwa turai.

Daga baya kuma sai turawa suka dira a lagos,
sannan kamfanin su mai suna Royal Oil company
ya wanzu a wajajen Shekara ta 1884 wanda
mulkin wasu sassan kasar ya koma karkashin
jagorancin George Taubman Goldie mai rike da
shugabancin kamfanin kenan, shima kamfanin
daga bisani ya gusa inda wasu kamfanonin suka
kafu. A takaice dai, daga shekara ta 1900 kafin
fara mulkin mallaka, kamfanoni biyu ke mulkar
sassan Nigeria guda biyu, watau Southern
Protectorant Company a kudu, sai kuma Northern
protectorant Company a arewacin kasar, masu
kamfanonin sun kasance turawan Ingila, sune
kuma jagorori masu kula da siye da siyarwa a
yankunan. Suna da sojoji da kayan yaki, tayadda
suke amfani da karfinsu wajen maganin duk wata
barazana.
An ce a shekarar 1884 ne yayin wata tattaunawa
tsakankanin manyan kasashen duniya na wancan
lokacin a birnin Berlin na kasar Jamus, akayi
kasafin yankunan Afirka don fara gudanar musu
da mulkin mallaka. Yankunan Nigeria na kudu da
arewa duk sun fada ne a hannun turawan
birtaniya, sabanin yankin Niger daya fada a
hannun faransa da kuma yankin Cameroon daya
fada hannun Jamus.
Kasancewar hakan, sai yasa Ingila tayi shawarar
hade yankunan wuri daya. An fara wannan aiki
tun a shekarar 1912, amma bai tabbata ba sai a
shekarar 1914, a lokacin turawa sun kammala
cinye duk wata masarauta kenan dake yankin da
yaki. A lokacin kuma, sai aka baiwa tsohon
shugaban Mulkin mallaka a Hongkong, Sir Lord
Lugard mukamin gwamna janar wanda zai
jagoranci mulkin arewaci da kudancin kasar bisa
umarnin da zai rinka amsa daga can kasar ta
ingila. Hakan na nufin Ingila ta karbe ikon mulki
daga hannun kowa, yanzu abinda takeso shi
za'ayi a yankin.
An ce babban abin tunawa da Gwamna Lugard a
iya zaman da yayi a Lagos yana shugabanci
shine kokarinsa na dakatar da cinikin bayi da
kuma tabbatar da yankunan sun zamo a hade.
Masanan tarihi sun bayyana Lugard da mutum ne
tsatstsaura wanda baya jure raini daga bakar
fata. Sannan kuma duk da kasancewar sa ya
taba rike mukamin gwamnan arewa a baya, ance
yafi yiwa kudancin kasar aiki. Dalilin hakan na
cikin wani tsari daya kafa bisa sahalewar ingila,
cewa kowanne yanki zai rinka samun aikace-
aikace ne bisa harajin da suke tarawa. A wancan
lokacin ana samun haraji mai yawa daga hada-
hadar giya a kudu, amma a arewa giya abar
kyama ce saboda musulunci.
Matar Gwamna Lugard mai suna Flora Shaw
wadda akace yar jarida ce ta kamfanin 'The
Times' ta rinka taimakonsa wajen gudanar da
mulki. Itace kuma akace ta lakabawa wannan
kasa sunan Nijeriya. (Niger area, watau yankin
kogin Niger)
A zamanin mulkin Lugard ne yakin Adubi ya
barke a kudancin kasar. Inda kabilar Egba ta
yankin yarabawa suka dauki makamai tare da
lalata titunan layin dogo (jiragen kasa) da kuma
hallaka wasu turawa masu wakiltar ingila dake
zama a yankin nasu. Dalilinsu nayin haka shine
uzzura musu da akeyi wajen karbar haraji, da
kuma tilasta musu bisa yin aiki ga turawa. Kamar
misalin layin dogo, duk 'yan kasa turawan ke
tursasa yin leburan cinsa cikin zafin rana da
kishirwa.
Gwamna Lugard dai bai saurarawa mutanen nan
ba. Inda ya taso rundunar soji tazo yankin ta
yakesu, kuma taci galaba akansu.

Allahu Akbar!
Gwamna Lugard ya rinka turawa Ingila bayanan
duk wani abu dayayi a shekara. Wani Kundi mai
suna 'Blue Book' a 'Encyclopedia Britannica' ya
nuna yadda takardun nasa suka rinka
kasancewa. A ra'ayinsa kuma, bai dauki bakar
fata mutum kamar baturen ingila ba. Saboda
yace bakaken fata nada rauni, idan kabasu fuska
rainaka zasuyi. Idan kabasu dama kuma yakar ka
zasuyi. Shiyasa ya hana baiwa bakar fata ko
ɗaya shugabanci a zamaninsa. Ya kirkiri
majalisar zartaswa, amma babu bakar fata wakili
koda guda ɗaya, sai dai wata majalisa kurum ta
jeka-na-yika daya kafa wadda aka tsulma
sarakunan mulki aciki, sukuwa basu da ikon cewa
kanzil wajen aiwatar wa, sai dai sujira umarni
kurum daga gareshi.
A ranar 8 ga watan Agusta na shekarar 1919 ne
Sir Hugh Clifford ya amshi mulki bayan Lugard
yayi ritayar aiki. Shikuwa abin tunawa ne ko don
kundin tsarin mulki daya sabunta, daga wanda
Lugard yayi izuwa sabo wanda ya baiwa 'yan
k'asa kafar kirkirar jam'iyyu da kuma kamfanin
jarida, da wannan damar Herbert Macaulay yayi
amfani wajen kirkirar jam'iyyar siyasa ta farko a
kasar nan maisuna 'Nigerian National Democratic
Party'. Tare da kirkirar gidan jaridar 'west African
Pilot'.

Baya da haka, kundin tsarin mulkin ya tanaji wata
majalisar jeka-nayi-ka mai wakilai 46 wadda hudu
daga cikinsu yan kasa ne suka zabo su daga
yankin lagos da ibadan. Amma fa duk da haka,
turawa nanan akan bakansu na cewar babu
ruwan yan kasa da tsoma bakin su akan yadda
ake mulkarsu. Domin babu bakar fata ko daya a
sahun majalisar zartarwar sa, duk turawa ne.
Sannan arewacin kasar ya cigaba da zamowa
saniyar ware, wanda Gwamnati bata cika kula
dashi ba a lokacin.

Ranar 13 ga watan nuwamban 1925 ya zama
lojacin fara mulkin Sir Graemi Thompson a
matsayin gwamna janar mai shugabantar
hadaddiyar Nigeria. Shine wanda akace ya
zagaya tun daga ikko har zuwa Borno a mota.
Sannan ya samar da karin layukan dogo a sassan
kasar, ba illa ma a arewa inda harajin
gudanarwar aiyuka yayi karanci, amma ance sai
rance akayo daga harajin da kudu ke samarwa
wajen aiwatar da aiyukan da arewan ke bukata.

Bayan gushewar sa, sai Sir Donald Charles
Cameron ya soma mulki a ranar 17 ga watan
yuni na shekarar 1931. Ance Mutum neshi mai
daraja bakar fata da son hadin kai. Yayi matukar
kokari wajen ilimantar da yan Nigeria ilimin
zamani ta hanyar bude makarantu a sassan
kasar tare da samar da malamai daga turai. An
ma taba jiyoshi yana cewa " Mun zo nan Afirka
ne a madadin Kasar Birtaniya domin mu koyar da
'yan Afirkan yadda zasu dogara da kansu. Da
zarar wannan muradi ya cika, wajibin mune mu
gusa gefe. Hakan kuwa zai dauki tsawon lokaci
kafin mu cimmasa, amma kafin nan, dole ne duk
abinda zamuyi, muyishi bisa wannan
muradin" (Extract ID:4918, Wikipedia-Britannica).
Bayan shi sai Sir Bernand Henry Bourdillon,
wanda ya soma mulki a ranar 1 ga watan
nuwambar 1935. Shi kuwa ya kamata a tuna
dashi ko-dan yadda ya janyo sarakunan arewa
masu zaman saniyar ware a gudarwar mulki
izuwa cikin mulki. Ya ziyarci manyan sarakunan
arewa, ya fada musu cewa ba dai-dai bane rashin
tsulma bakunan su a salon gudanar war
kasarnan, sannan ya shaida musu irin illar da
hakan ke iya samarwa. An ce ya fahimci cewa
turawan mulki basu cika kula da arewacin kasar
ba saboda dalilai biyu; Na farko, tun sanda Sir
Lugard yana mulki ya baiwa ingila shawarar cewa
abu ne mai wuya yan arewa su mika kai dari-
bisa-dari ga turawan mulki, don haka zaifi kyau a
mulki arewa ta hannun sarakunan ta. watau
sarakuna na mulkar talakawa, turawa kuma na
mulkar sarakuna (sabanin a kudanci da turawan
ke mulki kai tsaye ga talakawa).

Sannan kuma
Lugard din ya fahimci jinin yakibda son
shugabanci a jinin al'ummar hausa-fulani, shiyasa
yake ganin idan aka basu dama zasu yiwa
turawan mulki bore. Abu na biyu kuwa shine
karancin harajin dake fitowa a yankin.
Don haka, Sir Bourdillon yayi kokari wajen samar
da makarantun zamani a yankin arewa, amma dai
manufarsa ta ilimantarwa bata cimmu ba tunda
kakannin mu lokacin suna k'in bature da kuma
kin duk wani abu daya kawo na sauyi a wancan
zamani.

Daga nan sai Sir Arthur Richard ya amshi mulki a
shekarar 1943. A lokacin mulkin sane yan kasa
(mafi yawa daga kudancin kasar) suka fara
kiraye-kirayen abasu 'yancin kai. Hakan ya samu
ne saboda an fara wayewa, an samo baiwa wasu
kasashen yancin kai, sannan uwa-uba, gwamnan
yana da sauki kuma. Shiyasa turawa suke kiran
Sir Arthur da lusari, saboda acewar su sanyin
sane yasa har aka fara yin wannan ikirari. Abin
tunawa a mulkinsa shine ya samar da sabon
kundin tsarin mulki a wanda ya raba kasar izuwa
sassa uku, gabas, kudu da arewa. A lokacin sane
kuma yakin duniya na biyu ya auku, don haka bai
samu nutsuwar aiwatar da manyan aiyuka ba.

A shekarar 1948 kuwa Sai sir John Stuart
MacPherson ya amshi mulki, wanda ya mukki
kasar har izuwa shekara ta 1955.

Shima dai ya
sabunta kundin tsarin mulki wanda aka sawa
suna 'MacPherson constitution'. Koda yake, ance
tsarin mulkin baiyiwa wasu dadi ba, hakan yasa
Jam'iyyar NCNC ta tattara kudade daga hannun
'yan kasa ta tura ingila akayi kara, daga bisani
ingila ta soke kundin. Sannan yayi sassauci
wajen sauya sunan wasu yankuna da kadarorin
gwamnati daga sunayen da turawa suka sanya
wanda yafi musu dadi, izuwa sunayen da yarukan
wurin suka fi ganewa. Abinda a turance ake kira
'Africanization'.
Sir James Wilson shine Gwamna janar na karshe
a tarihin mulkin mallaka a Nigeria. Ya soma mulki
ne a ranar 15 ga watan yuni na shekarar 1955,
sannan ya mika mulki a hannun Mr. Nmandi
Azikwe, wanda yake shine bakar fata na farko
dan Nigeria, daya fara mulkin kasar, a ranar 16
ga watan nuwamba na shekarar 1960.

An ce Sir Robertson bayan komawar sa gida, ya
shiga damuwa da takaici bisa yadda 'yan afirka
suka rushe duk wani asasin gina kasa da turawa
suka kafa musu a iya zaman su a kasashen
Afirka suka shiga yake-yake da juna tare da
neman yancin kai a tsakanin su. Ya fadi hakan
karara a littafin sa mai suna 'Africa in Transition:
From direct rule to Independence, wanda aka
buga a shekarar 1974. ya kuma fadi cewar 'yan
afirka sunyi kusskuren neman 'yanci tun da farko,
domin abinda suka sani yanzu (na yake-yake da
almundahna) basu sanshiba a baya, shiyasa tun a
lokacin suka rinka matsa lambar korar turawa
tare da karbar yancin kai, shiyasa kuma muka
yanke shawarar basu abinda suke so..

Wannan dai shine takaitaccen zance game da
Shugabannin mulkin mallaka a Nigeria.

Da fatan Allah ya albarkaci wannan kasa tamu
da zaman lafiya da kuma yalwar arziki. Amin

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Munayin iyakar bakin kokarin mu don baiwa me hakkin rubutu hakkinsa, ma'ana idan mun samu Rubutu daga Suleman Abubakar to zamusa daga Suleman Abubakar saboda awajensa musami Rubutun koda bashi yayi ba to mu bamu Sani ba, adinga yimana Uziri
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ALLAH yabar Zumunci Amin🙏
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Source By © Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
08060869978

TURA WANNAN ZUWA GA

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